Controlling the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

Healthcare-associated infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria are costly and deadly. Michael Rubin, MD, and Matthew Samore, MD, generated new evidence on the effect of infection-prevention practices on the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Continue reading → Controlling the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance

The Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device is Effective as Emergency Contraception

The U.S. Healthy People 2020 initiative aims to improve pregnancy planning and increase access to the full range of contraceptive methods. Utah presents unique barriers to contraceptive services, including limited public funding and geographical regions with limited family planning services. Continue reading → The Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device is Effective as Emergency Contraception

Effectiveness of Physical Therapy for Back Pain

Julie Fritz, PhD, and colleagues have conducted a series of rigorous randomized clinical trials examining patients with acute back pain, back pain accompanied by sciatica, and back pain due to spinal stenosis. Their recent study found that patients with back pain and sciatica who were referred to physical therapy for treatment with exercise and manual therapy were more likely to rate their treatment as successful and reported significantly greater reductions in pain and disability than patients who were not referred. Continue reading → Effectiveness of Physical Therapy for Back Pain

Enhancing Decision-making for Diagnosis and Management of Respiratory Infection

Barbara Jones, MD, and Matthew Samore, MD, used national data from the Department of Veterans Affairs to examine decision-making and practice patterns among providers prescribing antibiotics for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory infection. Continue reading → Enhancing Decision-making for Diagnosis and Management of Respiratory Infection

Elective Labor Induction in First-Time Moms at 39 Weeks of Gestation

The optimal timing of delivery for low-risk pregnancies is not known. Risks of complications increase after 39 weeks of gestation, but inducing labor may increase the need for cesarean delivery, leading to policies prohibiting elective induction before 41 weeks. To address this dilemma, Robert Silver, MD, and colleagues at the University of Utah Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology randomized 6,106 low-risk, first-time pregnant women to either induction of labor at 39 weeks or expectant management. Continue reading → Elective Labor Induction in First-Time Moms at 39 Weeks of Gestation

HER Salt Lake City Contraceptive Initiative and Family Planning Elevated

The U.S. Healthy People 2020 initiative aims to improve pregnancy planning and increase access to the full range of contraceptive methods. Utah presents unique barriers to contraceptive services, including limited public funding and geographical regions with limited family planning services. Continue reading → HER Salt Lake City Contraceptive Initiative and Family Planning Elevated

Individualized Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification and Chemoprophylaxis in Surgical Patients

The research team of Christopher Pannucci, MD, and Benjamin Brooke, MD, set out to determine whether chemoprophylaxis for VTE among surgical patients could be better achieved through individualized risk stratification using established Caprini scores. They performed a meta-analysis of nearly 15,000 surgery patients, stratified by Caprini scores for VTE risk levels. Continue reading → Individualized Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification and Chemoprophylaxis in Surgical Patients

Translating Influenza Immunization in Pregnancy into Infant Immunity

Infants with influenza are at increased risk for adverse outcomes, particularly in the first six months when they are unable to mount a sufficient response to influenza immunization. Few large-scale studies have evaluated the impact of maternal immunization during pregnancy on subsequent infant influenza outcomes. To address this gap, Julie Shakib, DO, and colleagues conducted a retrospective cohort study of 245,386 pregnant women and their infants over nine influenza seasons. They found that infants born to women reporting influenza immunization during pregnancy had risk reductions of 70% for influenza infection and 81% for influenza hospitalization in the first six months. Continue reading → Translating Influenza Immunization in Pregnancy into Infant Immunity

Age-Related Sarcopenia and Recovery Following Muscle Disuse

Aging coincides with frequent periods of muscle disuse and, when combined with subsequent poor muscle recovery, contributes to sarcopenia, loss of muscle during aging. In order to develop effective interventions to offset deficits in muscle mass and function, Micah Drummond, PhD, and colleagues studied the cellular and molecular events that accompany muscle disuse in older adults. Continue reading → Age-Related Sarcopenia and Recovery Following Muscle Disuse

Readmission Destination and the Risk of Mortality Following Major Surgery

University of Utah Health investigator Benjamin Brooke, MD, PhD, and colleagues sought to determine whether patients who are readmitted following major surgery achieve better outcomes if they return to the same hospital and surgeons who performed their initial operation. Continue reading → Readmission Destination and the Risk of Mortality Following Major Surgery